1746 was the last of four Jacobite rebellions the chronology of these were as follows
James II (James VI of Scotland) was usurped from the British throne. He was a Catholic and had endeavoured to incorporate Catholics back into main stream English affairs after their persecution by Elizabeth I. He also wished to return to the more traditional absolute monarch which does not appeal to the English.
His replacement William III (a.k.a William of Orange and 'King Billy') is Dutch and a protestant. There then follows the first rebellion, his supporters are named Jacobites after the Latin for James.
William defeats James at the battle of the Boyne in Ireland, a battle that has significance felt to this day.
After James death his son also called James a.k.a. The Old Pretender raises rebellions in 1715 and 1719. On both occasions battles are fought over the UK with English and Scots on both sides divided mainly by religion. The ruling Hannover dynasty wins both contests.
James son Charles Edward Stuart raises rebellion again. After early success on the battlefield at Falkirk and Prestonpans he invades England hoping for popular support but only manages to raise 300 English volunteers (known as the Manchester Regiment). He retreats to Scotland where in 1746 he is defeated at Culloden. This was the last battle fought on British soil.